Climate, Forensic, and Other Meteorological Consulting Services

In addition to services associated with our extensive expertise in heavy precipitation and hydrologic risk analysis, MetStat is also proud to offer a wide variety of climate, forensic, and other meteorological consulting services.

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General Weather and Climate Services

Our uniquely qualified team is certified, insured and committed to providing the highest quality expertise in precipitation analysis and monitoring. MetStat supports a wide variety of meteorological and climatological consulting services to help clients solve complex problems. Although most of our expertise is focused on precipitation, the MetStat team has engaged in other meteorological or climatological services. MetStat is a proud weather and climate service provider listed on the American Meteorological Society’s web site, providing expertise in the following areas:

  • Agriculture
  • Applied Meteorology
  • Consulting Services
  • Flood Modeling and Risk
  • Forensics/Expert Testimony
  • Infrastructure (Dams, Nuclear Sites)
  • Insurance/Risk Management
  • Precipitation
  • Severe Storms
  • Water Resource Management

Climate Mapping

MetStat provides high quality climate mapping solutions for a variety of applications, including agricultural interests, PMP studies and risk-based analyses.  In fact, MetStat played an integral role in the development of NCEI’s Climate Atlas of the United States.  We utilize an expansive in-house database of archived climatological and meteorological data coupled with cost-effective interpolation methods to create high-resolution maps of virtually any climate/weather variable. Using the latest geographical information system (GIS) technology, a variety of formats can be developed to meet your needs.

MetStat has derived the following climate/weather variables:

  • Mean Maximum/Minimum Temperature
  • Mean Heating, Cooling, and Growing Degree Days
  • Dew Point Temperature/Humidity
  • Snowfall and Snow Depth
  • Precipitation
  • Freeze/Frost Dates
  • Drought Indices
September mean corn growing degree days over the continental United States.
Growing-Degree Days

Temperature is a major determinant of the rate of crop development; growing-degree days are used to track the development of crops and to estimate the time of harvest.


These data can be used to derive the average freeze/frost dates. The growing season, the period between the last spring freeze and first fall frost, are important to understand the growing conditions for cultivated crops.


The type, timing, and amount of precipitation received during a year play a critical role in crop productivity. The number of days between rain events and average monthly rain are important variables for determining the number of days available for fieldwork.


The slightest warming of our climate is likely to change the amount and timing of snowmelt and runoff, particularly in western regions of the United States. A warmer than average climate or particular season may cause less snow to accumulate and yield less water. The change in runoff volume and timing means that western farmers may need to make new choices when deciding what crops to plant and at what time of year.

Climate Change

MetStat has also conducted studies that incorporate the projected effects of climate change into hydrologic frequency estimates. Climate model data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) is used to produce adjustment factors for meteorological variables (particularly temperature and precipitation), which may then be used to scale the inputs to hydrologic models. A variety of different scenarios may be simulated, depending upon the hydrometeorological concerns of the client and the near-future time period of interest. A recent example project is provided on the project portfolios page.

Forensic Meteorology

Backed by our strong credentials, including Certified Consulting Meteorologists, MetStat provides professional forensic meteorology services. MetStat has supported numerous defendants and prosecutors in a variety of weather-related cases since 2006. Our pin-point meteorology investigations and reconstructions put weather events into a historical and/or statistical perspective, thereby providing objective evidence of the rarity of an event. We provide answers to the questions: Might weather conditions have been a contributor to a given incident? Were weather conditions actually as claimed by a defendant or plaintiff? How unusual was the weather event?

We leverage our extensive internal databases, as well as other weather/climate databases to provide the most accurate, dependable and official forensic reports available.  Our investigations provide opinions and conclusions that represent a high degree of professional certainty for clarifying the impact, rarity and details of weather events. Our expert reports strive to address the strategy of the defendant or plaintiff while remaining truthful, honest and accurate to the data.

We have been involved with legal cases with monetary consequences of up to nearly $10 million at locations throughout the United States, from Arizona to New York. We have supported a wide range of defendants and plaintiffs, ranging from large energy companies to individuals in slip-and-fall cases.

MetStat’s Experience

We have addressed cases of the following nature:

  • Slip and fall
  • Eminent domain
  • Flood & flash flood litigation
  • High wind accidents
  • Automobile accidents

We are able to offer expertise in the following areas:

  • Weather Reconstruction
  • Water/Hydrology
  • Flooding
  • Detailed Site-Specific Meteorological Analysis
  • Expert Report Preparation
  • Expert Meteorology Testimony
  • Insurance, Bad Faith and Property Casualty
  • Meteorological Data Acquisition
  • Slip and Fall
  • Climatology
  • Wind Storms

Contact us for our CVs and rate schedule for our forensic team. You can also visit our forensic meteorology listings at and at the American Meteorological Society.

September mean corn growing degree days over the continental United States.

Miscellaneous Project Examples

Here are some unique meteorological and climatological consulting projects MetStat has taken on:

  • Peer reviewed a snow load study for Utah.
  • Provided seasonal temperature by zip code for smart irrigation controller algorithm.
  • Seasonal water temperature forecasts for NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service to optimize conditions for migrating salmon at Shasta Dam using physical models (CE-QUAL-W2) and statistical methods (stochastic weather generation, regression-based).
  • Provided precipitation data to support a climate change project on the east coast of the United States.
  • Developed GIS-based tool with RTI International for the California-Nevada River Forecast Center for basin delineation (IHABBS), model calibration (CAP), and snow water equivalent (SWE) climatology (Snow-17).
  • Peer reviewed Pennsylvania DOT drainage manual based on precipitation frequency estimates from NOAA Atlas 14.
  • Numerous journal article peer reviews on precipitation frequency, probable maximum precipitation, climate mapping, and storm analyses, among other topics.
  • Immediately after the destructive September 2013 floods in Colorado, we provided Colorado’s Division of Water Resources a map of the storm precipitation in terms of an Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) to strategically deploy dam safety engineers to inspect dams across the Front Range.
  • Provided the New York Times ARI data of the rainfall associated with Hurricane Irene to support an interactive map.
  • Guest instructor for UCAR’s COMET program on the subject of precipitation frequency estimates.
  • Numerous side-projects to support WeatherUnderground Blog (WunderBlog, but now referred to as Category 6) blog posts, including this one.
  • Tye Parzybok authored the book, “Weather Extremes of the West” in 2004, which highlights the most notorious historical weather events and phenomena in the western United States.

Contact us today with your unique problem!